The Bucharest Early Intervention Project
HomeAbout BEIPOur PeoplePublicationsNews & MediaOur Book

Publications
Smyke, A.T., Dumitrescu, A., & Zeanah, C.H. (2002). Attachment disturbances in young children: I. The continuum of caretaking casualty. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 41, 972-982. PMID: 12162633  

Zeanah, C.H., Smyke, A.T. & Dumitrescu, A. (2002). Attachment disturbances in young children: II. Indiscriminate behavior and institutional care. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 41, 983-989. PMID: 12162634  

Zeanah, C.H., Nelson, C.A., Fox, N.A., Smyke, A.T., Marshall, P., Parker, S.W., & Koga, S. (2003). Designing research to study the effects of institutionalization on brain and behavioral development: The Bucharest Early Intervention Project. Development and Psychopathology, 15, 885-907. PMID: 14984131

Marshall, P.J., Fox, N.A., & the BEIP Core Group. (2004). A comparison of the electroencephalogram between institutionalized and community children in Romania. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 16(8), 1327-1338. PMID: 15532128

Parker, S.W., Nelson, C.A., & the BEIP Core Group. (2005). The impact of early institutional rearing on the ability to discriminate facial expressions of emotion: An event-related potential study. Child Development, 76(1), 54-72. PMID: 15693757

Parker, S.W., Nelson, C.A., & the BEIP Core Group. (2005). An event-related potential study of the impact of institutional rearing on face recognition. Development and Psychopathology, 17, 621-639. PMID: 16262985

Zeanah, C.H., Smyke, A.T., Koga, S.F.M., Carlson, E., & the BEIP Core Group. (2005). Attachment in institutionalized and community children in Romania. Child Development, 76(5), 1015-1028. PMID: 16149999

Nelson, C.A., Parker, S.W., Guthrie, D., & the BEIP Core Group. (2006). The discrimination of facial expressions by typically developing infants and toddlers and those experiencing early institutional care. Infant Behavior and Development, 29(2), 210-219. PMID: 17138276

Zeanah, C.H., Koga, S.F.M., Simion, B., Stanescu, A., Tabacaru, C., Fox, N.A., Nelson, C.A., & the BEIP Core Group. (2006). Ethical Considerations in International Research Collaboration: The Bucharest Early Intervention Project. Infant Mental Health Journal, 27(6), 559-576. 

Zeanah, C.H., Koga, S.F.M., Simion, B., Stanescu, A., Tabacaru, C., Fox, N.A., Nelson, C.A., & the BEIP Core Group. (2006). Response to commentary: Ethical dimensions of the BEIP. Infant Mental Health Journal, 27(6), 581-583.

Nelson, C.A. (2007). A neurobiological perspective on early human deprivationChild Development Perspectives, 1, 13-18. 

Nelson, C.A., Zeanah, C.H., Fox, N.A., Marshall, P. J., Smyke, A.T., & Guthrie, D. (2007). Cognitive recovery in socially deprived young children: The Bucharest Early Intervention Project. Science, 318, 1937-1940. PMID: 18096809

Smyke, A.T., Koga, S.F., Johnson, D.E., Fox, N.A., Marshall, P.J., Nelson, C.A., Zeanah, C.Z, & the BEIP Core Group. (2007). The caregiving context in institution reared and family reared infants and toddlers in Romania. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 48(2), 210-218. PMID: 17300560

Windsor, J., Glaze, L.E., Koga, S.F., & the BEIP Core Group. (2007). Language acquisition with limited input: Romanian institution and foster care. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 50, 1365-1381. PMID: 17905917

Marshall, P.J, Reeb, B.C., Fox, N.A., Nelson, C.A. & Zeanah, C.H. (2008). Effects of early intervention on EEG power and coherence in previously institutionalized children in Romania. Development and Psychopathology, 20, 861-880. PMID: 18606035

Nelson, C.A., Zeanah, C.H., Fox, N., Marshall, P.J., Smyke, A.T., & Guthrie, D. (2008). Letter to the editor. Science, 319, 1336-1337. PMID: 18323433

Bos, Karen J., Fox, N., Zeanah, C.H., & Nelson, C.N. (2009). Effects of early psychosocial deprivation on the development of memory and executive function. Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience, 3, 1-7. PMID: 19750200; PMCID: PMC2741295

Ghera, M.M., Marshall, P.J., Fox, N.A., Zeanah, C.H., Nelson, C.A., Smyke, A. & Guthrie, D. (2009). The effects of foster care intervention on socially deprived institutionalized children’s attention and positive affect: results from the BEIP study. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 50, 246-253. PMID: 19309327

Moulson, M., Fox, N.A., Zeanah, C.H., & Nelson, C.A. (2009). Early adverse experiences and the neurobiology of facial emotion processing. Developmental Psychology, 45(1), 17-30. PMID: 19209987

Moulson, M.C., Westerlund, A., & Nelson, C.A. (2009). The effects of early experience on face recognition: An event-related potential study of institutionalized children in Romania. Child Development, 80(4), 1039-1056. PMID: 19630892

Nelson, C.A., Furtado, E.A., Fox, N.A., & Zeanah, C.H. (2009).The deprived human brain. American Scientist, 97, 222-229. 

Smyke, A.T., Zeanah, C.H., Fox, N.A., & Nelson, C.A. (2009). A new model of foster care for young children: The Bucharest Early Intervention Project. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 18(3), 721-734. PMID: 19486847

Zeanah, C.H., Egger. H.L., Smyke, A.T., Nelson, C.A., Fox, N.A., Marshall, P.J., & Guthrie, D. (2009). Institutional rearing and psychiatric disorders in Romanian preschool children. American Journal of Psychiatry, 166, 777-785. PMID: 19487394

Bos, K., Zeanah, C.Z., Fox, N.A., & Nelson, C.A. (2010). Stereotypies in children with a history of early institutional care. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, 164(5), 406-411. PMID: 20439790

Drury, S.S., Scheeringa, M.S., Schmidt, K.E., & Nelson, C.A. (2010). From biology to behavior to the law: Policy implications of the neurobiology of early adverse experiences. Whittier Journal of Child and Family Advocacy, 10(1), 25-52. 

Drury, S.S., Theal, K.P., Smyke, A.T., Keats, B.J.B., Egger, H.L., Nelson, C.A., Fox, N.A., Marshall, P.J., & Zeanah, C.H. (2010). Modification of depression by COMT val158met polymorphism in children exposed to early psychosocial deprivation. Child Abuse & Neglect, 34(6), 387–395. PMID: 20403637 

Jeon, H., Nelson, C.A., & Moulson, M. (2010). The effects of early experience on emotion recognition: A study of institutionalized children in Romania. Infancy, 15(2), 209-221.

Johnson, D.E., Guthrie, D., Smyke, A.T., Koga, S., Fox, N.A., Zeanah, C.H., & Nelson, C.A. (2010). Growth and associations between auxology, caregiving environment and cognition in socially deprived Romanian children randomized to foster vs. ongoing institutional care. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, 164(6), 507-516. PMID: 20368481

McLaughlin, K.A., Fox, N.A., Zeanah, C.H., Sheridan, M. A., Marshall, P.J., & Nelson, C.A. (2010). Delayed maturation in brain electrical activity partially explains the association between early environmental deprivation and symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Biological Psychiatry, 68, 329-336. PMID: 20497899; PMCID: PMC3010237

Sheridan, M.A., Drury, S., McLaughlin, K.A., & Almas, A. (2010). Early institutionalization: Neurobiological consequences and genetic modifiers. Neuropsychology Review, 20(4), 414-429. PMID: 21042937; PMCID: PMC3100174

Smyke, A.T., Zeanah, C.H., Fox, N.A., Nelson, C.A., & Guthrie, D. (2010). Placement in foster care enhances quality of attachment among young institutionalized children. Child Development, 81(1), 212-223. PMID: 20331663

Vanderwert, R.E., Marshall, P.J., Nelson, C.A., Zeanah, C.H., & Fox, N.A. (2010). Timing of intervention affects brain electrical activity in children exposed to severe psychosocial neglect. PLoS ONE, 5(7), 1-5. PMID: 20617175; PMCID: PMC2895657

Bakermans-Kranenburg, M.J., Steele, H., Zeanah, C.H., Muhamedrahimov, R.J., Vorria, P., Dobrova-Krol, N.A., Steele, M., van IJzendoorn, M.H., Juffer, F., Gunnar, M.R. (2011). Attachment and emotional development in institutional care: Characteristics and catch-up. In: R.B. McCall, M.H. van IJzendoorn, F. Juffer, C.J. Groark, & V.K. Groza (Eds.), Children without permanent parents: Research, practice, and policy. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 76(4), 62-91. 

Bos, K., Zeanah C.H., Fox, N.A., Drury, S.S., McLaughlin, K.A., & Nelson, C.A. (2011). Psychiatric outcomes in young children with a history of institutionalization. Harvard Review of Psychiatry, 19(1), 15-24. PMID: 21250893

Fox, N.A., Almas, A.N. Degnan, K.A., Nelson, C.A., & Zeanah, C.H. (2011). The effects of severe psychosocial deprivation and foster care intervention on cognitive development at 8 years of age: Findings from the Bucharest Early Intervention Project. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 52(9), 919–928. PMID: 21244422

Fox, N.A., Almas, A.N. Degnan, K.A., Nelson, C.A., & Zeanah, C.H. (2011). Commentary response: Handling long-term attrition in randomised controlled field trials: novel approaches by BEIP and a response to McCall (2011). Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 52(9), 931-932. PMID: 21770933

Gleason, M.M., Fox, N.A., Drury, S., Smyke, A.T., Egger, H.L., Nelson, C.A., Gregas, M.G., & Zeanah, C.H. (2011). Validity of evidence-derived criteria for reactive attachment disorder: Indiscriminately social/disinhibited and emotionally withdrawn/inhibited types. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 50(3), 216-231. PMID: 21334562

Gleason, M.M., Zamfirescu, A., Egger, H.L., Nelson, C.A., Fox, N.A., & Zeanah, C. H. (2011). Epidemiology of psychiatric disorders in very young children in a Romanian pediatric setting. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 20(10), 527-535. PMID: 21866415

McLaughlin, K.A., Fox, N.A., Zeanah, C.H., & Nelson, C.A. (2011). Adverse rearing environments and neural development in children: The development of frontal electroencephalogram asymmetry. Biological Psychiatry, 70, 1008-1015. PMID: 21962332 PMCID: PMC3207006

Nelson C.A., Bos, K., Gunnar, M.R., & Sonuga-Barke, E. (2011). The neurobiological toll of early human deprivation. In R.B. McCall, M.H. van IJzendoorn, F. Juffer, C.J. Groark, & V.K. Groza, (Eds.), Children without permanent parents: Research, practice, and policy. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 76(4), 127-146.

Windsor, J., Benigno, J.P., Wing, C.A., Carroll, P.J., Koga, S.F., Nelson, C.A., Fox, N.A., & Zeanah, C.H. (2011). Effect of foster care on young children's language learning. Child Development, 82(4), 1040-1046. PMID: 21679171

Zeanah, C.H., Gunnar, M.R., McCall, R.B., Kreppner, J.M. & Fox, N.A. (2011). Sensitive periods. In: R.B. McCall, M.H. van IJzendoorn, F. Juffer, C.J. Groark, & V.K. Groza, (Eds.), Children without permanent parents: Research, practice, and policy. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 76(4), 147-162. 

Almas, A.N., Degnan, K.A., Radulescu, A., Nelson, C.A., Zeanah, C.H., & Fox, N.A. (2012). Effects of early intervention and the moderating effects of brain activity on institutionalized children’s social skills at age 8. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 109 (Suppl 2), 17228-17231. PMID: 23045660; PMCID: PMC3477393

Drury, S. S. (2012). Maternal sensitivity and attachment: Softening the impact of early adversity. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 51(7), 670-672. PMID: 22721589

Drury, S.S., Gleason, M.M., Theall, K.P., Smyke, A., Nelson, C.A., Fox, N.A., & Zeanah, C.H. (2012). Genetic sensitivity to the caregiving context: The influence of 5httlpr and BDNF val66met on indiscriminate social behavior. Physiology & Behavior, 106, 728-735. PMID: 22133521

Drury, S.S., Theall, K.P., Gleason, M.M., Smyke, A.T., Devivo, I., Wong, J.Y.Y., Fox, N.A., Zeanah, C.H., & Nelson, C.A. (2012). Telomere length and early severe social deprivation: Linking early adversity and cellular aging. Molecular Psychiatry, 17, 719-727. PMID: 21577215

McDermott, J.M., Westerlund, A., Zeanah, C.H., Nelson, C.A., & Fox, N.A. (2012). Early adversity and neural correlates of executive function: Implications for academic adjustment. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, 2S, S59-S66. PMID: 22682911

McGoron, L., Gleason, M.M., Smyke, A.T., Drury, S.D., Nelson, C.A., Gregas, M. C., Fox., N.A., & Zeanah, C.H. (2012). Recovering from early deprivation: Attachment mediates effects of caregiving on psychopathology. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 51(7), 683-693. PMID: 22721591

McLaughlin, K.A., Zeanah. C.H., Fox, N.A., & Nelson, C.A. (2012). Attachment security as a mechanism linking foster care placement to improved mental health outcomes in previously institutionalized children. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 53(1), 46-55. PMID: 21733136; PMCID: PMC319387

Sheridan, M.A., Fox, N.A., Zeanah, C.H., McLaughlin, K.A., & Nelson, C.A. (2012). Variation in neural development as a result of exposure to institutionalization early in childhood. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 109(32), 12927-12932. PMID: 22826224; PMCID: PMC3420193 

Slopen, N., McLaughlin, K.A., Fox, N.A., Zeanah, C.H., & Nelson, C.A. (2012). Alterations in neural processing of facial emotions and psychopathology in children raised in institutions. Archives of General Psychiatry, 69(10), 1022-30. PMID: 226379938; PMCID: PMC3513656

Smyke, A.T., Zeanah, C.H., Gleason, M.M., Drury, S.S., Fox, N.A., Nelson, C.A., & Guthrie, D.G. (2012). A randomized controlled trial of foster care vs. institutional care for children with signs of reactive attachment disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 169, 508-514. PMID: 22407081

Windsor, J., Moraru, A., Nelson, C.A., Fox, N.A., & Zeanah, C.H. (14 May 2012, Eprint ahead of pub). Effect of foster care on language learning at 8 years: Findings from the Bucharest Early Intervention Project. Journal of Child Language, 1-23. PMID: 22584071 

Zeanah, C.H., Fox, N.A., & Nelson, C.A. (2012). The Bucharest Early Intervention Project: Case study in the ethics of mental health research. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 200 (3), 243-247. PMID: 22373763

McDermott, J.M., Troller-Renfree, S., Vanderwert, R., Nelson, C.A., Zeanah, C.H., & Fox, N.A., (2013). Psychosocial deprivation, executive functions and the emergence of socio-emotional behavior problems. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 7, article 167.

Nelson, C.A., Fox, N.A., & Zeanah, C.H. (2013). Anguish of the abandoned child: The plight of orphaned Romanian children reveals the psychic and physical scars from first years spent without a loving, responsive caregiver. Scientific American, April, 62-67.

Nelson, C.A., Westerlund, A., McDermott, J., Zeanah, C.H., & Fox, N.A. (2013). Emotion recognition following early psychosocial deprivation. Development and Psychopathology, 25, 517-525. 

Gleason, M.M., Fox, N.A., Drury, S.S., Smyke, A.T., Nelson, C.A., & Zeanah, C.H. (in press). Indiscriminate behaviors in young children with a history of institutional care. Pediatrics.

Levin, A.R., Zeanah, C.H., Fox, N.A., & Nelson, C.A. (in press). Motor outcomes in children exposed to early psychosocial deprivation. Journal of Pediatrics.

McLaughlin, K., Sheridan, M., Winter, W., Fox, N.A., Zeanah, C.H. & Nelson, C.A. (in press). Widespread reductions in cortical thickness following severe early-life deprivation: A neurodevelopmental pathway to ADHD. Biological Psychiatry.


Commentaries on BEIP

Wassenar, D.R. (2006). Commentary: Ethical considerations in international research collaboration: The Bucharest Early Intervention Project. Infant Mental Health Journal, 27(6), 577-580.

Millum, J. & Emanuel, E.J. (2007). The ethics of international research with abandoned children. 
Science, 318, 1874-1875.

Editor. (2008). The ethical neuroscientist. Nature Neuroscience, 11, 239.

Miller, F.G. (2009). The randomized controlled trial as a demonstration project: An ethical perspective. American Journal of Psychiatry, 166, 743-745.

Glowinski, A.L. (2011). Reactive attachment disorder: An evolving entity. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 50(3), 210-212.

Rid, A. (2012). When is research socially valuable? Lessons from the Bucharest Early Intervention Project: commentary on a case study in the ethics of mental health research. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 200(3), 248-249.

Schechter, D.S. (2012). Editorial: The developmental neuroscience of emotional neglect, its consequences, and the psychological interventions that can reverse them. American Journal of Psychiatry, 169, 452-454.


Contact Us
For information about a publication not listed here, please send us an e-mail by clicking the button below.